Jonin sarkofag iz Beograda

Značajan broj antičkih sarkofaga otkriven je širom rimskog carstva, a isto tako taj broj pronađenih sarkofaga svrstava se u slučajne nalaze, dok je mali broj sarkofaga u muzejima  završavao kao poklon zahvaljujući dobronamernosti nalazača. U njima nisu pronađeni ni pokojnici ni grobni prilozi, ali su pronađeni vredni pisani i ikonografski zapisi.

Sarkofazi su nosioci istorijskog (narativnog) reljefa, zbog čega su u prvim vekovima svog postojanja prolazili kroz razne promene koje su se ogledale u prikazanim predstavama. U početku su to bili sarkofazi velikih razmera na kojima su se prikazivale pobede Rimljana nad varvarima i cara koji trijumfuje. Potom se javljaju mitološke scene lova ili borbi (borbe Amazonki). Konačno, u kriznim periodima III veka, kao odraz duhovne krize i potrebe za uspostavljanjem mira, javljaju se mirne kompozicije, ali i pojave hrišćanskih tema inspirisanih slikarstvom katakombi. Krajem ovog veka i početkom IV na sarkofazima pojavljuje se „narodna umetnost“ kada niži slojevi društva postaju njihovi nosioci.

Na primeru Beograda, ovi kameni spomenici koji su tu bili otkriveni, u početku su predstavljali najraniju kolekciju Narodnog muzeja, da bi kasnije bili premešeteni u Veliki barutni magacin u Donjem gradu Kalemegdanske tvrđave. Tim premeštanjem sarkofaga tokom prošlog veka i njihova nedostupnost su neki od razloga zašto se većina njih navode kao izgubljeni ili nestali. Nažalost, neki nisu bili prepoznatljivi kao deo kulturne baštine, pa je njihova sekundarna upotreba bila zamena za saksiju ili pojilo domaćih životinja.

Izuzetno redak nalaz, sarkofag sa predstavama Jone i Dobrog pastira otkriven je slučajno 1885. godine u ulici Gospodar Jovanoj. Razlikovao se od ostalih antičkih sarkofaga, nadgrobnih stela i drugih nadgrobnih obeležja tog vremena po tome što je prvi imao uklesane hrišćanske simbole. Istovremeno je i jedini na kome se nalaze figuralne scene. Sarkofag na sebi ima monolitni poklopac u obliku dvoslivnog krova (sl. 1), sa akroterijama u uglovima i jednom polukružnom na sredini prednje strane.

Slika 1.

Kose strane poklopca ukrašene su plastično izvedenim krovnim opekama. Na prednjoj strani sanduka je pravougaono polje sa profilisanim okvirom, čije su bočne vertikalne ivice ukrašene noričko-panonskim volutama. U parovugaonom polju, u plitkom reljefu, predstavljene su zbijene scene iz ciklusa o stradanju starozavetnog proroka Jone, koje se odvijaju u vodi, i dominantna stojeća figura Dobrog pastira na kopnu. Scena desno: na brodu sa katarkom i jedrima, dve figure sede i veslaju, a jedna stoji i baca nagog Jonu u čeljust morske nemani. Ispred broda su prikazane četiri ribe. U sredini, u pozadini, nalazi se drvo na kome stoje dve ptice, a jedna, desno od njega, leti prema brodu.  Scena ispred drveta: morska neman iz čeljusti izbacuje Jonu, koji se rukama hvata za stenu, u prvom planu je figura nagog muškarca (genije) koji jaše na delfinu, levom rukom se pridržava za njega, a u desnoj, podignutoj ruci drži trakasti predmet (bič?). Na levoj strani plitkog reljefnog polja prikazan je Dobar pastir kao mladić koji drži jagnje na ramenima. Odeven je u kratku tuniku i bos je. Prostor između ove figure i volutnog okvira nije obrađen (sl. 2).

Slika 2

U dve zbijene scene iz ciklusa o stradanju starozavetnog Jone, koje se odvijaju u vodi, ukopmonovana je dominantna figura Dobrog pastira, koji stoji na kompnu. Kompozijca predočava Jonin odlazak u smrt (bacanje u čeljust morske nemani) i izbavljenje (izbacivanje iz čeljusti morske nemani i hvatanje za stenu) u prisustvu Dobrog pastira, u kojem je, verovatno, skriven lik Hrista spasitelja. Metafora prikaz Hrista kao dobrog pastira često je upotrebljavana u istoriji kao simbol Gospoda koji na ramenima nosi jagnje. Prikazani par, kao spoj starih simbola i novog značenja, oličava ideju o spasenju i vaskrsenju.

Jonin sarkofag svojom lepotom  i hrišćanskim simbolima izdvaja se od svih poznatih antičkih sarkofaga iz tog perioda. Njegova ekskluzivnost se ogleda u činjenici da među poznatim primercima iz susednih provincija, sa Balkana i šireg prostora, nema analogija za prikazane scene. Danas se nalazi u Velikom barutnom magacinu u Donjem gradu Beogradske tvrđave zajedno sa ostalim važnim spomenicima rimskog doba.

Kamenim spomenicima nije bilo posvećeno dovoljno pažnje i brige prilikom njihovog očuvanja, kao i, nažalost, većini ostalih spomenika kulture. Pored toga što su ovi svedoci prošlih vremena ostali zauvek izgubljeni i nikad dokumentovani za buduća pokolenja, mali, ali značajan broj je ostao zbrinut te su bili podvrgnuti konzervatorskim i restauratorskim tretmanima, a od pre nekoliko godina bivaju dostupni za javnost.

 

Maja Miljevic

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.
Maja Miljevic

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Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.

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