Kako se nekad prikazivalo mučenje

Nasilje je staro koliko i čovečanstvo. Ne postoji period naše istorije koji nije bio obeležen nekom vrstom nasilja. Od prvih ljudi koji su se borili za egzistenciju i reprodukciju, preko prvih ljudskih civilizacija koji su želeli moć ili da sačuvaju svoje teritorije i svoje sugrađane, pa sve do danas kada se, verovali ili ne, želi isto. Danas smo možda malo civilizovaniji i svoje primitivne i divljačke misli i želje suzbijamo postojanjem zakona, etičkim i moralnim kodeskima koje nas ljude, koliko-toliko, razdvajaju od životinja. Međutim, prošlost nas uči kako da se ponašamo.

Neistomišljenici, nevernici, robovi, ljudi druge boje kože suočavali su se sa najbrutalnijim i najužasnijim zlodelima kroz istoriju, a za koje bi pomisli da je nemoguće da jedan um može da smisli i ostvari. Videli smo na filmovima, čitali iz knjiga, učili smo u školama, čuli smo od naših baka i deka i njihovih roditelja i td. da su ljudi u prošlosti primenjivali i činili zla dela na razne moguće i nezamislive načine. Neka mučenja bila su javnog karaktera gde je publika sa uživanjem posmatrala i navijala, a druga su bila malo intimnija, ali i među najgorima. Brojne sprave su se koristile ne bi li se ostvarili ciljevi, a mnogi umetnici našli su inspiraciju u tim patnjama.

Damnatio ad Bestias

Kazna prema rimskom zakonu bila je izuzetno oštra i nemilosrdna. Često su kazne bile način da se drugi odvrate od činjenja istog zločina i da se od počinioca-kriminalaca napravi javni spektakl. O kazni u starom Rimu odlučivala su dva faktora: socijalni status osuđene osobe i težina izvršenog dela. Od 2. veka p.n.e., robovlasnik je takođe imao opciju kažnjavanja poznatog kao damnatio ad bestias (egzekucije osuđenika od strane životinja), koji je počiniocu dao bar malu šansu da preživi.

Na čuvenom mozaiku iz Zlitena u Libiji prikazane su različite scene iz amfiteatra: gladijatorske borbe, inscenacije lova na životinje, borbe venatora i životinja, međusobne borbe životinja, kao i egzekucije. Ova scena iz 2. veka sa mozaika Zliten u Tripoliju (sl. 1), prikazuje pogubljenje osuđenika od strane divljih životinja. Sa leve strane, dva osuđena muškarca vezana su za stub. Jedan je napadnut od strane velike mačke, drugi se nalazi na dvokolici kako bi se suočio sa napadom leoparda.

Slika 1 – Zliten mozaik iz Tripolija

Raspeće

Jedna od najstarijih i svakako najpoznatijih metoda mučenja bila je raspeće. Njegova primena naznačena je u širokoj upotrebi od strane Feničana. Usvojili su je i Skiti, Grci, Rimljani, Persijanci i Kartaginjani. Upotreba krsta je verovatno bila, kod većine naroda, podložna nabijanju na deblo drveta. Drveni krst imao je različite oblike kod različitih naroda i u različitim periodima istorije. Oblik je verovatno postao besmrtan Isusovim raspećem koji je bio najšire korišćen u to vreme (sl. 2).

Hristovo raspeće
Slika 2 – Ploča od slonovače sa predstavom Hristovog raspeća

Smrt je bila spora i neizrecivo bolna. To predstavlja jedan oblik mučenja koji traje danima, a koji se nekad produžavao davanjem hrane i pića. Patnja se mogla povećati i pojačati na stotinu načina, prema osvetiljubivoj i zloćudnoj prirodi progonitelja ili dželata. Noge su ponekad bile razbijene teškim udarcima, lice i grudi rastrgane kukastim oruđem, telo je bilo opskrbljeno šiljastim šipkama ili kolcima. Ponekad su palice nasilno gurnute u analni otvor ili uretralni prolaz i zatim ponovo nasilno povučene. Druga varijanta bila je razmazivanje lica medom kako bi se privukli insekti. Rimljani i mnogi drugi ostavili bi telo na krstu, puštajući ga da trune dok ništa više ne ostane osim golih kostiju.

Falarisov bik

Prema Lucijanu “the Brazen bull” koji je stajao u hramu prvog Falarisa bio je izum čoveka po imenu Perilos (sl. 3). On se svrstavao u jedan od najinovativnijih i najvrednijih sprava za mučenje ikad zamišljenih. Ova sprava napravljena je od metala po tačnoj veličini i obliku bika. Unutrašnjost je formirala šuplju komoru, a na poleđini bika stajala su vrata za ulazak i izlazak.

Slika 3 – Falarisov bik od PierreWoeiriot II (1532-1596)

Izumitelj, znajući reputaciju okrutnog tiranina Falarisa, doveo je bika njemu na proveru i nastavio da objašnjava genijalnost mučenja koju će ova sprava proizvesti. “Zločinac”, objasnio je Perilos, “trebalo je da bude zatvoren unutar bika, a vatra će se ispod njega raspalamasati. Agonija zarobljenog počinioca biće toliko velika da će vrištati i vikati od bola i straha, a te grmljavine i usplahireni jecaji i vriskovi, uz pomoć ugrađenih cevi u noktima bika biće pretvoreni u melodične tonove”. Stoga mu je Flaris rekao, da, ukoliko je siguran u svoj izum da on to dokaže na licu mesta. Tako što će ući u bika i da oponaša krike mučenog muškarca i onda će mu poverovati da li će “šarmantna” muzika krenuti iz njega. Perilos je poslušao i čim je bio u stomaku bika, Falaris ga je brže bolje zatvorio i potpalio vatru ispod njega. I onda mu je rekao “shvatite to kao jedinu nagradu koja vredi za takvo umetničko delo, i pevajte nam prvi primerak šarmantnih nota od kojih ste vi izumitelj!” Međutim, Falaris nije dao da plemeniti rad bude zagađen umiranjem tamo nekog bednika, zbog toga su ga izvukli dok je još bio živ i potom ga bacili sa vrha stene.

Perilaus, roasted in the bull he made,

Gave the first proof of his own cruel trade.”

-Ovid

Previše pogrešno i užasno da bi bilo istinito, ali se od istorije ne može pobeći. Publika i počinitelji više nego očigledno uživali su bolu koji su nanosili i zlu koju su sejali. Zato nije ni čudno što postoji bezbroj umetničkih dela koje se bave ovom tematikom. Verovatno da ima nečega u jecaju, suzama, bolnom izrazu lica…, a  nije saosećanje.

 

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.
Maja Miljevic

Latest posts by Maja Miljevic (see all)

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.

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