Kako su umetnici prikazivali patuljaste ljude u drevnom Egiptu

Ljudi patuljastog rasta su u zapadnoj civilizaciji svojevrsna atrakcija. Nizak rast im je omogućio izvesnu popularnost te su veoma česti na malim ekranima. Međutim, kako je izgledao život ljudi patuljastog rasta u drevnom Egiptu?

Prva asocijacija na spomen drevnog Egipta svih nas jesu piramide. Drevne građevine koje i nakon hiljada i hiljada godina danas čvrsto stoje i plene svojom velelepnošću i monumentalnošću. Međutim, nisu samo piramide one te koje kriju tajne. To su i umetnička dela drevnih i veštih majstora koji su po nalogu svojih naručilaca stvarali ono što je nas čekalo da svim svojim čulima razaznamo.

Želja da se zaviri u jedan delić onoga što je tako daleko i nedovoljno istraženo je velika kao i želja da se vratimo u prošlost da osetimo i dodirnemo sve ono što je nekada tu bilo.

Upoznati smo, koliko-toliko, sa bogatstvom izvora koje nam arheološka otkrića drevnog Egipta često donose. Iako su nam drevni ljudi ostavili nedovoljno pisanih ili nepotpunih izvora, našu radoznalost možemo dopuniti i umetničkim delima koja su ostavili za sobom. Značaj umetničkih dela sa aspekta arheologije, istorije umetnosti, pa čak i medicine rasvetljava prošla saznanja, tehnike, odnos zajednice prema pojedincu na sasvim nov i vrlo iznenađujući način. Naša viđenja ljudi u prošlosti su se odavno promenila, a bogata nasleđa ostavljena nama našu znatiželju može da zadovolji.

Zahvaljujući umetničkim izvorima dokumentovano je prisustvo ljudi patuljastog rasta (eng. dwarf) koji su bili neizostavni u svim aspektima života drevnih Egipćana. Često se na zidovima grobnica sreću osobe patuljastog rasta kako obavljaju svakodnevne poslove. Predstave slika pokazuju da su bili zlatari, babice (dadilje), ribari, čuvari životinja, zabavljači i plesači, lični službenici i sl. Većina tih predstava potiče iz perioda Starog kraljevstva (2575-2134. g. pre nove ere) i u oko 50 grobnica u Gizi i Sakari predstave su otkrivene. U nekoliko grobnica Starog kraljevstva, grupa muških osoba patuljastog rasta prikazana je kako pravi ogrlice. Na jednoj veličanstvenenoj sceni iz grobnice Mereruka oni su bili naslikani kako prave ogrlice među radnicima prosečne veličine (sl.1). Međutim, patuljasti rast nije ostao nezabeležen ni kod osoba visokog statusa, ali ni zapostavljen kod predstava bogova.

 

Slika 1. Zlatari patuljci

Patuljci visokog statusa

U egipatskoj literaturi je izdvojeno nekoliko termina ispisanih hijeroglifskim pismom (deneg, nmv, hw) koji se prevode kao patuljasti rast. Jedan od termina „nmv“ bio je u pratnji slike malog čoveka sa izduženim telom, kratkim udovima i blago istaknutom zadnjicom što ukazuje na lordozu na granitnom sarkofagu Djeha (Djeho) patuljastog rasta. Njegova figura golog tela bila je prikazana u prirodnoj veličini (120 cm) na poklopcu sarkofaga (sl.2).

 

Slika 2.

Statua Seneba i njegove porodice (sl.3) otkrivena je u grobnici u Gizi u blizini piramida. Ona predstavlja veličanstveni portret porodice sa velikim osećajem balansa i harmonije. Seneb je bio patuljastog rasta, dok su njegova žena i deca bili prikazani u normalnoj veličini. Seneb je bio sedećem položaju pored žene i njegova glava je bila na istom nivou kao i glava žene. Dok su deca bila prikazana ispod u manjoj veličini sa prstima preko usta. Zanimljivo je to da je vešti i osećajni umetnik smišljeno smestio decu niže gde bi bile Senebove noge s ciljem upsostavljanja balansa. Drugom predstavom umetnik je Senaba na lažnim vratima ovog spomenika prikazao isto sa nejednakim proporcijama tela, ali su poštovana pravila kojim je on bio veći od svojih sluga i ponekad viši, kako bi se istakao njegov visoki društveni status.

 

Slika 3. Seneb sa svojom porodicom

Bogovi patuljastog rasta

Na bogove se gledalo kao na magična stvorenja čime su dobijali status bogova. Iako je postojalo nekoliko nepoznatih bogova prikazanih patuljastim rastom, među najpoznatijima bili su bog Pta (Ptah) i Bes. Često je Bes prikazan hibridne prirode u kombinaciji sa životinjskim i ljudskim karakteristikama, velikom lobanjom, nejednakim dužinama gornjih i donjih udova, sa repom i lavljom grivom koja predstavlja svirep stav (sl.4). Isto tako je prikazan kako drži daire praveći buku da otera demone.

Slika 4. Bog Bes

Pta je u suprotnosti sa Besom bio prikazan, isto u patuljastom obliku, ali kao goli čovek sa kratkim rukama i nogama, velike glave i bez ikakvih oružja. Pored brojnih predstava, na jednoj je prikazan u stojećem položaju, rukama uz telo sa šakama zatvorenim u pesnice. On ima bočni simbol mladosti na desnoj strani glave koji mu daje mladalački izgled (sl.5).

Slika 5. Bog Pta

Umetnički izvori su nas obogatili novi znanjem time što su ukazali kakav položaj osobe patuljastog rasta u svakodnevnom životu su imale.Videli smo da patuljasti rast nije ostao nezabeležen, niti su osobe sa ovim poremećajem bile odbačene od zajednice, već su bili prihvaćeni kao i svi ostali, učestvovali su u svakodnevnim aktivnostima i dobijali visoke pozicije. Osim toga su bili poštovani tokom života, ali i nakon smrti toliko da dobiju raskošne grobnice na kraljevskom grobu blizu piramida.

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.
Maja Miljevic

Latest posts by Maja Miljevic (see all)

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.

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