Mozaici Velike palate u Istanbulu

Istanbul je prepun tragova nekadašnjeg Carigrada. Svi znamo za Aja Sofiju kao jedno od vrhunskih graditeljskih dostignuća vizatnijskog sveta, ali do danas nam je ostalo i mnogo drugih tragova nekadašnjeg stolnog mesta romejskih careva. Jedno od tih slavnih mesta je i Velika palata.

Veliku palatu izgradio je Konstantin Veliki koja se sastojala od grupe građevina uređenih oko dvorišta i vrtova. Dizajnirana da zadovolji administrativne, ceremonijalne i stambene potrebe cara i njegovog domaćinstva, ovaj kompleks je služio kao prava carska rezidencija sve do kasnog 11. veka. Tokom sledećih vekova palata je stradala zbog požara, zemljotresa, ali i iz drugih razloga. Srećom, palata i njeni mozaci sačuvali su zato što je vreme učinilo svoje i oni vekovima kasnija bivaju spašeni zemljom koja se na njih nataložila.

Kada je peristil Velike palate obnovljen pod Justinijanom I (527-565), mozaik palate predstavljao je najveći i najlepši napravljen mozaički pejzaž u antičko doba. Nigde u svetu iz perioda kasne antike ne mogu se naći mozaici sličnog izgleda i savršene izrade. Verovatno su mozaici izrađeni od strane carske radionice koja je sigurno zaposlila najbolje zanatlije okupljene iz svih krajeva Carstva, vođeni jednim umetnikom. Upravo ta okolnost otežava upoređivanje dela sa stvaralaštvom, a samim tim i datovanje pomoću tipoloških i stilskih metoda.

Podni mozaik sastoji se od bojenih kockica kreča, terakote i stakla malih dimenzija od 5 mm. Jedan kvadratni metar površine izrađen je od 40 000 kocki, što čini 80 000 000 tessarae za celu površinu! U Velikoj palati glavno polje mozaika iznosi 6 metara u širini. Obe strane njegovog ruba praćene su izvrsno postavljenom granicom folija, a svaka je 1, 5 m širine. Što je dovoljno da pokrije čitavu halu podnim mozaicima koja je dugačka 9 metara. Okvirom mozaika dominira visoko naturalistički svitak akantusa. Akantus je ispunjen maskiranim glavama, egzotičnim voćem i životinjama.

Potom se uočava okvir koji simbolizuje rajski vrt. Kad se pogledaju scene posle okvira, nailazi se na kretanja s leva na desno u severnoistočnom hodniku. Slike opisuju scene na otvorenom, život pastira, rad seljaka i junaštvo lovaca (sl. 1). Prizori dece koja se igraju sa divljim zverima i životinjama na ispaši naizmenično se poklapa sa mitološkim motivima životinjskih bajki i neverovatnih stvorenja iz egzotičnih zemalja, životinja, lova, igara, prirode i mitova koji su vodeće teme u nizu slika. Na očuvanim delovima mozaika još uvek se nalazi 90 različitih tema koje su popunjene sa oko 150 ljudskih i životinjskih figura.

Velika palata
Slika 1

Arheološka iskopavanja u prošlom veku su otkrila mozaik u kojem se pojedinačne scene ljudskog i životinjskog života pojavljuju u tri paralelna panela nasuprot beloj podlozi. U uredno urađenim panelima pojedinačne scene predstavljaju različite aspekte života na otvorenom. Stočari, poljoprivrednici i domaće životinje vode jednostavan i miran život. Stari pastir sklanja svoje stado, dečak nudi hranu magaracu, koza se ispružila. Deca se igraju, ponekad oponašajući sportske aktivnosti odraslih kao što su cirkuske igre (sl. 2), dok se u drugim vremenima igraju sa životinjama.

Velika palata
Slika 2

Neobični seoski pejzaži prenose sliku mira. Sa druge strane nasilje je deo svakodnevnice. Divlje životinje hvataju nesrećna domaća stvorenja, kao i jedni druge. Tako lisica hvata jagnje, na nekom drugom mestu orao se bori sa zmijom (sl. 3), medved hvata lane, a slon napada lava. Fantastična bića takođe ulaze u sukob sa zverima, tako grifon napada guštere i jelena (sl. 4).

Velika palata
Slika 3
Velika palata
Slika 4

Mozaici predstavljaju scene života na otvorenom kojima su se jasno modelovane trodimenzionalne robusne figure smatrale prikladnim u prividnoj jednostavnosti i jasnoći njhovog formiranja. Ovi kvaliteti su shvaćeni kao vizuelne analogije prirodnog karaktera ruralnog života, bilo da je to mirno ili nasilno.

Ovo arheološko otkriće ujedno je i jedno od najvećih koje je Istanbul imao u prošlom veku. Mozaike ovakve lepote, a naročito veličine, ne možemo nigde druge videti od antike pa do danas. Mozaici su nakon dugog procesa restauracije, uključujući i ponovno pričvršćivanje mozaika sa posebnom vrstom voska i maltera, očišćeni, polirani i prezentovani javnosti. Muzej mozaika počinje sa radom 1987. godine.

 

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.
Maja Miljevic

Latest posts by Maja Miljevic (see all)

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.

130 thoughts on “Mozaici Velike palate u Istanbulu

  • 07/23/2019 at 1:22 PM
    Permalink

    Refill Prednisone cheapest cialis Cialis 20mg Emra Med Sans Ordonnance Amoxicillin Pharmacie En Ligne En Suisse Generique Order Tamoxifen Online

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:38 PM
    Permalink

    hi!,I like your writing so a lot! proportion we be in contact extra about
    your article on AOL? I need an expert in this space
    to resolve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Having a look forward to
    look you.

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:50 PM
    Permalink

    I constantly spent my half an hour to read this weblog’s content every day along with a cup of coffee.

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:50 PM
    Permalink

    If some one wishes to be updated with most recent technologies
    then he must be pay a visit this web page and be up to date everyday.

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:51 PM
    Permalink

    Aw, this was an exceptionally good post. Finding the time and actual
    effort to generate a really good article? but what can I say?
    I procrastinate a lot and never seem to get nearly anything done.

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:51 PM
    Permalink

    Hello my friend! I wish to say that this post is awesome, great written and come with
    approximately all vital infos. I would like to peer extra posts like this.

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:52 PM
    Permalink

    Excellent beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog web site?

    The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted
    of this your broadcast offered bright clear concept

  • 08/06/2019 at 8:56 PM
    Permalink

    Well I truly liked reading it. This article offered by you is very helpful for accurate planning.

  • 08/06/2019 at 9:11 PM
    Permalink

    I’m really enjoying the theme/design of your web site. Do you ever run into
    any internet browser compatibility problems? A few of my
    blog audience have complained about my blog not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox.
    Do you have any tips to help fix this problem?

  • 08/06/2019 at 9:17 PM
    Permalink

    Hello my friend! I want to say that this article is awesome,
    nice written and include approximately all important infos.

    I would like to peer extra posts like this.

  • 08/10/2019 at 12:24 PM
    Permalink

    Thats what an angel is. Dust pressed into a diamond by the weight of this world. #TheOA needs your help. #SaveTheOA

  • 08/19/2019 at 9:58 AM
    Permalink

    Just dropping by… andI {wanted|needed|decided| to drop a note because late last week I found a site writing about something very similar.The info wasfascinating I admit.

  • 09/05/2019 at 4:44 PM
    Permalink

    Hello would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with?

    I’m planning to start my own blog in the near future
    but I’m having a difficult time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs
    and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!

  • 09/06/2019 at 9:17 PM
    Permalink

    I have been browsing online greater than 3 hours these days, but I never discovered any fascinating article like yours. It’s beautiful worth sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content material as you probably did, the net can be much more helpful than ever before.

  • 09/06/2019 at 9:18 PM
    Permalink

    hey there and thank you for your information – I have definitely picked up anything new from right here.
    I did however expertise some technical issues using this web site, since I experienced to reload the web
    site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly.
    I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK?
    Not that I am complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect
    your placement in google and can damage your quality
    score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this
    RSS to my e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective intriguing content.
    Ensure that you update this again soon.

  • 09/09/2019 at 3:59 AM
    Permalink

    Just stopping by… and I wanted to leave a post because late last night I noticed a page talking about something nearly the same.The coincidence wasamazing I admit.

  • 09/10/2019 at 11:09 PM
    Permalink

    Hi there, I desire to subscribe for this webpage to obtain newest updates, so where can i do it please help.

  • 09/12/2019 at 5:41 AM
    Permalink

    Hello there, You have done a fantastic job. I’ll certainly digg it and in my view suggest to my friends. I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this site.

  • 09/17/2019 at 1:12 AM
    Permalink

    Hi everyone, it’s my first pay a visit at this web page, and piece of writing is in fact fruitful in favor of me, keep up posting these articles or reviews.

  • 09/23/2019 at 3:53 PM
    Permalink

    I’ve read a few just right stuff here. Definitely value bookmarking for
    revisiting. I surprise how much effort you put to make the sort of excellent informative site.

  • 09/26/2019 at 12:50 AM
    Permalink

    Fabulous, what a website it is! This weblog presents valuable information to
    us, keep it up.

  • 09/27/2019 at 12:06 AM
    Permalink

    I love what you guys tend to be up too. This kind of clever
    work and reporting! Keep up the fantastic works guys I’ve added you guys to
    my blogroll.

  • 10/02/2019 at 2:53 PM
    Permalink

    Hello there, You’ve done a great job. I’ll definitely digg it and personally suggest
    to my friends. I’m confident they will be benefited from this web
    site.

  • 10/03/2019 at 1:12 PM
    Permalink

    Fine way of explaining, and fastidious paragraph to take facts
    on the topic of my presentation subject matter,
    which i am going to present in university.

  • 10/06/2019 at 3:02 AM
    Permalink

    “I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting! Keep up the superb works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my website :)”

  • 10/08/2019 at 1:43 AM
    Permalink

    I am so grateful for your article post.Really thank you! Great.

  • 10/11/2019 at 4:25 AM
    Permalink

    I’m impressed, I must say. Seldom do I encounter
    a blog that’s equally educative and entertaining, and
    without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the
    head. The issue is something which too few folks are speaking intelligently about.
    I’m very happy I stumbled across this during
    my hunt for something concerning this.

  • 10/11/2019 at 4:35 AM
    Permalink

    With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement?
    My website has a lot of unique content I’ve either written myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up
    all over the web without my permission. Do you know any solutions
    to help stop content from being stolen? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  • 10/13/2019 at 2:19 PM
    Permalink

    Say, you got a nice article.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  • 10/16/2019 at 11:38 PM
    Permalink

    I loved your blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  • 10/24/2019 at 10:52 PM
    Permalink

    Say, you got a nice article post.Really thank you! Awesome.

  • 10/26/2019 at 6:52 AM
    Permalink

    Great goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you’re just too great.

    I actually like what you’ve acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way in which you say it.
    You make it entertaining and you still care for to
    keep it sensible. I can’t wait to read far more from you.

    This is really a terrific web site.

  • 10/26/2019 at 7:08 AM
    Permalink

    What a material of un-ambiguity and preserveness
    of valuable know-how concerning unpredicted feelings.

  • 10/26/2019 at 5:18 PM
    Permalink

    wow, awesome post.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  • 10/30/2019 at 3:04 AM
    Permalink

    Enjoyed every bit of your blog. Much obliged.

  • 10/31/2019 at 1:19 AM
    Permalink

    I think this is a real great blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  • 11/01/2019 at 2:13 AM
    Permalink

    I really like and appreciate your blog article.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  • 11/02/2019 at 11:23 AM
    Permalink

    Really informative blog article.Thanks Again. Want more.

  • 11/02/2019 at 6:06 PM
    Permalink

    I really enjoy the blog article.Really looking forward to read more.

  • 11/04/2019 at 2:24 PM
    Permalink

    Fantastic blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Keep writing.

  • 11/05/2019 at 12:34 AM
    Permalink

    Thanks so much for the post.Thanks Again. Cool.

  • 11/05/2019 at 9:07 AM
    Permalink

    Really enjoyed this article.Really looking forward to read more. Great.

  • 11/05/2019 at 4:17 PM
    Permalink

    I am not sure where you’re getting your information, but great topic.

    I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more.

    Thanks for wonderful information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  • 11/06/2019 at 11:38 AM
    Permalink

    I really liked your article post.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  • 11/07/2019 at 8:21 PM
    Permalink

    Really appreciate you sharing this blog post.Thanks Again. Will read on…

  • 11/09/2019 at 9:53 AM
    Permalink

    A big thank you for your blog.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.

  • 11/09/2019 at 8:55 PM
    Permalink

    Looking forward to reading more. Great article post.Really thank you! Want more.

  • 11/10/2019 at 9:46 AM
    Permalink

    Thanks again for the article.Really looking forward to read more. Keep writing.

  • 11/10/2019 at 2:47 PM
    Permalink

    Hi! I’ve been reading your weblog for some time now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from Porter Texas! Just wanted to say keep up the excellent work! canada drug pharmacy

  • 11/10/2019 at 9:37 PM
    Permalink

    I cannot thank you enough for the blog post.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  • 11/11/2019 at 3:08 PM
    Permalink

    Cialis 5mg price drugs buy buy generic cialis online cialis online consultation

  • 11/12/2019 at 2:45 AM
    Permalink

    Thanks for fantastic info I was searching for this info for my mission.

  • 11/12/2019 at 3:53 PM
    Permalink

    How long does a copyright last on newspaper articles?. . If a service copies newspapers articles and then posts it in a database on the Internet, is there also a copyright on the Internet content?.

  • 11/12/2019 at 6:56 PM
    Permalink

    Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this info. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossip and internet stuff and this is really annoying. A good website with interesting content, that is what I need. Thank you for making this website, and I’ll be visiting again. Do you do newsletters by email?

  • 11/13/2019 at 3:17 PM
    Permalink

    It is in fact a cool and beneficial piece of details. I am content which you just shared this practical information and facts with us. Please retain us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  • 11/14/2019 at 1:10 AM
    Permalink

    Major thankies for the blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Cool.

  • 11/14/2019 at 2:15 AM
    Permalink

    I feel that is among the such a lot important info for me. And i’m satisfied reading your article. But want to observation on some basic issues, The site style is great, the articles is actually nice : D. Just right activity, cheers

  • 11/14/2019 at 1:19 PM
    Permalink

    As the admin of this web site is working, no uncertainty very shortly it will befamous, due to its feature contents.

  • 11/14/2019 at 6:50 PM
    Permalink

    Really appreciate you sharing this article.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *