Predstave žene u prošlosti

Žena je u prošlosti imala bitnu ulogu. Koja, iako je nekad bila nevidljiva, nije bila zanemarljiva. Možemo primetiti da se među arheološkim predmetima iz praistorije uglavnom kriju figurine sa naglašenim ženskim atributima. Kasnije, tokom istorije, kada se javljaju pisani i slikani izvori, žena dobija svoje mesto u muškom svetu.

Vilendorfska Venera

Tokom arheoloških iskopavanja 1908. godine u Austriji otkrivena je, danas najpoznatija, figurina žene. Reč je o figurini koja je isklesana iz olitnog krečnjaka tokom gornjeg paleolita (28-25 000 g.p.n.e. ). Vilendorfska Venera je prilično realistična reprezentacija gojazne žene koja kombinuje prirodni oblik sa stilskom šemom paleolitskih statua koje održavaju prošle apstraktne ideje. Sastav tela je simetričan, samo glava izgleda da je blago okrenuta u desno. Frizura ili dizajn na glavi postignut je poprečnim urezima i koncentričnim linijama. Nema facijalnih karakteristika. Posebno u šupljinama ovog dizajna dobro su očuvani ostaci crvene oker boje. Posmatrajući grudi, vidi se da je umetnik napravio prilično duge rezove da bi proizveo prste desne ruke. Na isti način obe ruke su podvučene odgovarajućim linijama. Na sredini tela se čini da su grudi, stomak i bedra prvo modelirani dubokim vertikalnim urezivanjem. Ovi urezi su polirani horizontalnim struganjem. Stopala takođe, nisu nikada bila modelovana i verovatno nisu bila deo originalnog dizajna (sl. 1).

Slika. 1- Vilendorfska Venera

Pretpostavlja se da je ona figura plodnosti, totem sreće, simbol majke boginje ili afrodizijak koji je modelovan za poštovanje muškaraca. Jedan istraživač je posumnjao da ga je izradila žena i da je „to“ viđeno kao dokaz gojaznosti i da predstavlja efekat samokontrole. Odnosno, da se radi o ličnim portretima. Iako je dosta pisano o Vilendorfskoj Veneri, malo toga osim iznetih detalja može se uzeti u obzir.

Stari Egipat

Postoji puno pisanih i slikanih izvora koji se tiču žena u starom Egiptu. Na osnovu njih možemo proviriti u živote kraljevskih, plemićkih i običnih žena. Iako postoje jasna ograničenja koliko možemo shvatiti njihov stvarni društveni status i ulogu u staroegipatskom društvu. Većina slikovnih dokaza potiče iz grobnica, koje je samo kraljevstvo i plemstvo moglo da priušti i da izgradi. Reljefni prikazi i njihove statue pokazuju savršene živote namenjene večnom zagrobnom životu, a ne istinski realističan prikaz svakodnevnog života. Žena iz kraljevske porodice imala je svoje grobnice, a zato one koje nisu bile plave krvi, svoje grobnice delile su sa svojim muževima i bile su prikazane iz elitne muške perspektive, koje su proizveli muški umetnici i majstori.

Elitne žene, prikazane u obliku statua ili scenski u grobovima svojih muževa, predstavljene su na osnovu vrlo rodnih konvencija drevne egipatske umetnosti. Žena je prikazana svetlom kožom (sl. 2), što odražava njeno postojanje u zatvorenom prostoru, odnosu njeno mesto u muškom svetu, gde ona više vremena provodi u kući. Takođe, predstavljena je u pasivnim pozama. Ona je fizičkim izgledom manja od svog muža i prikazana je da ga dodiruje ili da ga grli, a time se naglašava njen sekundarni ili inferiorni položaj. Elitna žena prikazana je samo kao mlada i lepa, u savršenom stanju koje bi trebalo da ostane zauvek. Žene koje ne pripadaju eliti mogu u umetnosti biti predstavljene u svakodnevnim životnim scenama u grobnicama, pokazujući aktivnosti posednika grobnice. U ovim scenama žene su aktivne i rade: tkanje, pravljenje piva, posluživanje hrane i povlačenje lana. Njihove figure nisu vezane istim konvencijama kao kod elitnih žena, jer ono što je važno jeste da se prikaže proizvodnja hrane i robe, a ne ljudi koji to rade.

 

Žena u Egiptu
Slika 2

Carica Teodora

Žene su se tokom rimskog i kasnije vizantijskog perioda u portretima prikazivale sa muškim članovima carske porodice što daje vizuelnu predstavu društvene stvarnosti i da su njihov statusi, identitet i bogatstvo povezani sa muškarcima. Prva asocijacija na caricu Teodoru i cara Justinijana jesu njihovi mozaici u bazilici San Vitale u Raveni. Na oba portreta, vladari su obučeni da se identifikuju sa svecima i prorocima koji ih okružuju u dekorativnom mozaiku i da utvrde svoje večno prisustvo među božanstvom. Crkva je izgrađena u 6. veku i smatra se remek delom vizantijske arhitekture. Posebno se prepoznaje po živopisnim mozaicima hrišćanske ikonografije koji ukrašavaju unutrašnje zidove i tavanice.

Carica Teodora, čija je neizvesna pozadina kritikovana, od strane istoričara Prokopija i ostalih, na lošem glasu, njen portret bio je takođe ukrašen kraljevskim purpurnim ogrtačem preko haljine. Ona drži ukrasni putir, potvrđujući svoj identitet velikodušnog zaštitinka ove građevine. Ostali rekviziti jesu kragna sa draguljima i kruna stemma (predstavlja porodično stablo) sa složenom „perikom“ od bisera i dragulja koji joj vise na ramenima. Ona je okružena Antoninom i službenicima obučenim u tkanim haljinama od svile sa jarkim bojama, dodatno ukrašene tapiserijama (sl. 3).

Carica Teodora
Slika 3 – Carica Teodora

Teodora se pamti kao jedan od prvih vladara koji su priznali prava žena, donoseći stroge zakone kojim se zabranjuje trgovina mladih devojaka i menjajući zakone o razvodu kako bi ženama dali veće koristi. Potrošila je veći deo svoje vladavine pokušavajući da ublaži zakone protiv miafizita (monofiziti-tvrde da Hristos ima dve prirode, jedna je božanska, a druga je nerazdvojiva priroda istovremeno božanska i ljudska). Iako je uspela da okonča njihov progon 533. godine, ona nikada nije uspela da promeni Justinijanovu religijsku politiku sa akcentom na ortodoksiju i prijateljstvo sa Rimom.

Iako je žena često prikazana u pratnji muškarca ili je morala da bude prikazana u muškom svetlu (npr. Hatšepsut), kako bi uspela, njena uloga na ovom svetu ne može biti i nije umanjena. U praistoriji su bile poštovane i često se javljaju figurine sa ženskim karakteristikama, koje mnogi istraživači dovode u vezu sa plodnošću ili božanstvom. U nekim društvima, pored prikaza svakodnevnih akivnosti, žene su bile prikazivane u pornografskim scenama, verovatno da bi se zadovoljila muškarčeva želja i moć. Kasnije, možemo primetiti da se status žena kroz istoriju menjao na bolje i da dobijaju ista prava kao muškarci i svojom dobrom ili lošom vladavinom postaju poznate.

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.
Maja Miljevic

Latest posts by Maja Miljevic (see all)

Maja Miljevic

Rođena je 08.04.1992. godine, živi u Beogradu. Diplomirala je na katedri za arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu, gde je i završila master studije. Interesovanje je usmerila na proučavanje bolesti koje ostavljaju tragove na ljudskim skeletnim ostacima u prošlosti.

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